Taguchi recomienda el uso de arreglos ortogonales para hacer matrices que contengan los controles y los factores de ruido en el diseño de experimentos. Taguchi method with Orthogonal Arrays reducing the sample size from. , to only seleccionó utilizando el método de Taguchi con arreglos ortogonales. Taguchi, el ingeniero que hizo los arreglos ortogonales posible con el fin de obtener productos robustos.

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Metodo Taguchi – VideoZoos

It is important to notice that it is a common practice for ANN training to perform a cross validation method to estimate the performance of the learning algorithm.

For example it would be the same for the ADOS-G algorithm to have a value of 2 orhogonales abnormal assigned to the item “Pointing” and a value of 2 assigned to the item “Gestures”, than having a value of 1, which means mildly abnormal, assigned to the four items “Frequency of vocalization directed to others”, “Stereotyped used of words”, “Use of other’s body to communicate”, and “Pointing”.

This conventionally requires lengthy information processing and technical understanding of each of the areas evaluated in the tools. The diagnostic criteria has been derived through consensus among specialists and the diagnostic cut-offs are hard to define. Artificial Neural Networks ANN are computational models based on arregloe simplified version of biological neural networks with which they share some characteristics like adaptability to learn, generalization, data organization and parallel processing.

Table 5 Once the ANN was trained and validated, the following step was to classify the 12 factors through their impact on diagnosis. Alto, Medio y Bajo. A general advantage of ANN is that they can create approximations of an unknown system when trained by examples. In Mexico there is not a national study that can provide the Autism prevalence [4], taugchi some nongovernmental associations estimate that 1 in children has been diagnosed with Autism in Mexico [5].

The sum of the first 5 items should be greater or equal than 4, the sum of the next 7 items should be greater or equal to 7 and the sum of all the 12 items should be greater or equal to Once the ANN was trained and validated, the following step was to classify the 12 factors through their impact on diagnosis. Currently there is no biological test for the diagnosis of autism. The goal is to look for a reliable number of that could be used to train an ANN to generate a reliable diagnosis raguchi ASD [31].

The big difference between both works is that they used individuals to train the Arregoos while the methodology here presented used only 27 cases using the Taguchi method to select the training data. ASD is a world health problem described for the first time in by Kanner [2]. Diagnosis is achieved by behavioral evaluations specifically designed to identify and measure the presence and severity of the disorder.


The 12 inputs, which are the same 12 items that the ADOS-G algorithm evaluates, can have krtogonales of 0, 1 or 2. The combination of Tagucho impact with Medium impact factors can improve the ortogonalss obtained during diagnosis.

Mexico, Mexico, Alfaomega,ch.

Evaluación de la Robustez del sistema Mahalanobis-Taguchi a diferentes Arreglos Factoriales.

Remembering that values from the ANN output above or equal to 0. When high impact factors are weighted in 2 arteglos medium factors in 1, the diagnosis get a value of 0. The ADOS-G scale is a semi-structured instrument based on observation that consists of 4 modules that irtogonales managed in accordance with the age and language skills of the child.

The output value is a number in the range of 0 and 1 because the activation function was a hyperbolic tangent sigmoid function see Figure 5for this reason, the output values above or equal to 0.

The objective of the instrument is not to evaluate knowledge abilities in the subject but rather to evaluate if the subject wants to participate in a social exchange [19]. Classifying the impact of these areas and proposing a system that can aid experts in the diagnosis is a complex task.

As orotgonales result it affects, in varying degrees, normal brain development in social and communication skills. However, users may print, download, or email articles for individual use.

Although the causes of ASD remain unknown, all recent clinical data of neuroanatomical, biochemical, neurophysiologic, genetic tagchi immunological characters indicate that autism is a neurodevelopmental disorder with a clear neurobiological basis.

Van Nostrand Reinhold,pp. It can be said that Showing, Shared enjoyment in Interaction and Frequency of vocalization directed to others are the three items of high impact for Autism detection.

The number of cases for the network training data was determined by using the Taguchi method with Orthogonal Arrays reducing the sample size fromto only It can be observed in Table 6 first row, that the factors classified as high A2, B5 and B9 when assigned a value of 2 and zero for the rest, provide an output of 0.

Where m is the number of factors and L is the number of levels for each factor or the possible values each factor can have. The questionnaire is answered by the children’s parents. The training is repeated until all k parts have been used for validation. The error is the difference between the desired output and the real output delivered by the ANN. Diagnostic and therapeutic challenges in Mexico”, Salud Mental, Vol.


The next step was to reduce the number of cases to train the ANN, it has been mentioned that the L 27 orthogonal array should be selected for the number of parameters and states. Users should refer to the original published version of the material for the full abstract.

Learning can be supervised, where both inputs and desired outputs are well known and the ANN must infer the input-output relationship. The activation function is a differentiable function of the inputs given by Where is the output value for each output unit.

It makes no sense to divide the orthogonal array of 27 cases into two ttaguchi training and validationbecause the 27 cases are meant to be the most representative combinations in this krtogonales.

The activation function is a sigmoid or “S” shaped function because it is bounded and always has a continuous derivative. The full factorial design is given by Where m is the number of factors and L is the number of levels for each factor or the possible values each factor can have.

Different modules and tasks of the test are mainly oriented towards evaluating the level of communication and specific behaviors in social interactions. ADOS-G possible scores are 0, 1,2,3,7 and 8. Another validation form is the hold out validation, adreglos avoids the overlapping of train data and validation data, the available data is held out during training and used only for validation purpose.

All the trials from the OA include all combinations with independent relationships among variables. ANN must be trained with examples either supervised where both the input and the desired output are entered or unsupervised where the desired output is unknown. Juan N Navarro, Where The error is define as the quadratic error E p at the output units for pattern p between the desired output and the real output is the desired output for unit o in pattern p.

It includes red flags for activities that the child had not developed at specific ages as well as screening tools such as questionnaires.

Since the OA shown in Table 3 considers the states 1, 2 and 3 and the ADOS-G algorithm consists of three states 0, 1 and 2, Table 4 was created as the combination of cases that was used to train the ANN containing the items evaluated with the possible states.